Tag Archives: apache

Creating your PHP Onboarding for Windows machines

There are many many ways to have a full LAMP stack on a Windows machine and use it for PHP development like WAMP, for example. This is ok if you are developing just for fun, but in corporate level an on-boarding environment is much preferred. Having a pre-defined server image with all that is necessary to almost replicate your production server on a developer machine helps on preventing errors and, most importantly, quickly have new developers up-to-speed with the corporation development environment.

Consider that you would need:

  • Apache
  • PHP
  • MySQL
  • Memcache
  • APC
  • some extra libs
  • GIT repository

Creating this under windows can be such a hassle and in cases like this bundled solutions does not work.

To create a full LAMP stack on your windows machine and have it 100% stand-alone I have used Vagrant. On the prior version of Vagrant (V1) you had to use Putty in order to ssh to the VM and that was a painful process, with the newer version (V2) you can use built in Vagrant SSH as long you install an SSH support library like the one from GIT. There is a trick on the GIT installation, you must choose the option with the Linux / Unix commands (it has a red warning message about overwriting windows libs).

Prior installing Vagrant you will need to install Virtual Box. It is a Oracle virtual box machine. Very useful if you are on OSX or Linux and need to run tests on Windows IE9 (sig). This part of the process is very well explained on the Vagrant documentation.

Now comes to Vagrant install. It is fairly easy. Install Vagrant, then open command line and run “vagrant init”. It will create a default vagrant file with most of the basic things defined. Here comes a trick. The default vagrant file tries to download the precise VM.  I have tried to contact Vagrant a couple times on Twitter and with no luck. There is an issue with the download of this box, the server resets the connection prior the download to be finished.

There is a way out of this: VagrantBox.es – Select the box that you best consider that matches your environment, add it on vagrant (vagrant box add) and finally update the vagrant file to use the new added box.

After this, everything is as simple as setting up the environment. Unless you have an specific need to add the GIT repository files under another folder you can set it all under the vagrant folder (same folder where the vagrant file is located).

I could use the GIT command line on windows to clone / commit my repositories, but using the GIT windows tool from GitHub is way too fun 😀

I know that most of PHP developers use either Linux or OSX for development. It is much easier to setup and use, but if you are stuck with Windows, you might as well benefit of this.

Just a note, off course the main environment mentioned here was LAMP, but this same process can be used for Ruby, Phyton and may other hipster languages available =D

 

Updates:

I had a networking issue with the current box that I’m using. It seems that it is a common issue with some boxes as mentioned here – https://groups.google.com/forum/?fromgroups=#!topic/vagrant-up/Yeu6UF-GJO8

To fix run this: sudo /etc/init.d/networking restart

If you never installed a LAMP stack before, this article here will give you all the steps to install it correctly: http://www.howtoforge.com/installing-apache2-with-php5-and-mysql-support-on-ubuntu-12.04-lts-lamp

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PHP Test URL for SSL under a Load Balancer

Most likely your application will be under a load balancer when in production. If you need to test if the url is HTTPS with PHP you will probably use env(‘HTTPS’), but under a load balancer that wont work.

You will need to check for HTTP_X_FORWARDED_PROTO server variable.

Off course testing this under your local environment can be painful, but here is a small tip that works wonders. Change your http-ssl.conf and on your virtual host add:

RequestHeader set X-Forwarded-Proto "https"

This will automatically add the HTTP_X_FORWARDED_PROTO on the response header from Apache to your app.

The same logic can be used for other Apache header responses.


PHP Exploit for CGI instalations

As described in this article, PHP has a bug for CGI installations where a simple query string parameter might be enough to get full access to the server.

No server right now should be using CGI as installation, but if you are unsure if your server has a CGI installation is pretty simple to verify. Simply create a info.php page where it contents will be:

<?php
php_info();
?>

and load it from the server. If on the Apache section of the PHP Info shows mod_cgi, you should be looking for a better installation or some good security and contingency plan until the path for this bug is released.

As a rule of thumb no server should be using CGI as installation. From all PHP installations formats, CGI is by far the worst on performance.


When MySQL connections max out can be a problem

This is an issue that you might face and sometimes an expert advice might help. Dealing with the MySQL maxout connections can go from simple to purely hell, so, after some digs I have found out a good article from Jeremy Zawodny that writes about some good hard experience that brought some good learning.

Sharing the knowledge.

Link: http://jeremy.zawodny.com/blog/archives/000173.html


Solved: Apache Config and VHosts on Mac OSX 10.5

Mac is a great resource and it already comes with it’s own Apache and PHP installation inside. In the last 24 hours I have been on a fight with Apache on Mac to get it correctly configured so I have came with some highlights that will be useful to all.

  1. Download TextWrangler – It will allow you to see hidden folders and files (open hidden) making the changes on the httpd.conf and vhosts.conf much more easier
  2. All Apache config files are under /private/etc/apache2 unless you have compiled your own version of Apache and in that case you should run a command “which httpd” to show you some clues
  3. The Applications/Utilities/Console is your friend. It will surely help identifying why Apache is not working.
  4. Use the System Preferences / Sharing / Web Sharing to start and stop Apache server.
  5. By default Apache httpd.conf on Mac has everything set to “Deny from all” (line 177 about) so set it to “Allow from all” and the permissions issues should get set
  6. Make sure that :staff is the group set with read and write permissions to the Sites folder or the folder where the document root for your site is set (you can do this with getInfo on finder)
  7. Use Apache Error log as much as you can to get things set and as a note I haven’t been able to set a custom error log for my sites, so this was one of the things breaking my configs.

Next steps, getting PHP set. Will be more posts.

Have fun.


Apache Solr extension for PHP

One of the most dedicated PHP developers that I ever have met, Israel Ekpo, has released an Apache Solr PHP extension. Solr, Apache enterprise search server has now a good and easy interface for any PHP developer to easily use the server search features.

As himself mentioned:

The Apache Solr extension is an extremely fast, light-weight, feature-rich library that allows PHP developers to communicate easily and efficiently with Apache Solr server instances using an object-oriented API.

More at:


PHP Basics Series – Starting with PHP

Hi and welcome to the second article of the PHP Basics Series. The first article – PHP Basics series – coding – was about coding best practices, standards and methods. A small overview on what you need to know to be a good coder.

In this second article we are going to talk about the very beginning of PHP, how it works, how to start coding on it and a bit of history.

PHP stands for Hypertext Preprocessor and it was created based on the C, Java and Perl (used until today on extra modules) languages. With many authors, editors, contributors, etc, is hard to name one as it’s creators, therefore you can point Rasmus Ledorf (who wrote the original gateway binaries) and Andi Gutmans and Zeef Suraski (both responsible for witting the parser that formed PHP3) as the original creators of PHP3.

If we had to create a in-line structure to show how it works, it would be something like this:

The client (your browser) requests a page to the server. The server reads the page and see if there are any PHP script and it will parse that script generating the correct result that can be embed to the HTML / XML / Javascript (JS) / etc.

Off course there is much more when we are talking about the way that PHP works, and it’s history, but I will focus more on the coding techniques.

Before we create our first code and I promise that it will not be “Hello World“, you will need to have PHP installed on your development machine or in a server where you can store your PHP files to be executed.

If you are on a Windows machine you can either install PHP manually adding it to IIS server or you can install a PHP bundle that will install for you the Apache server, PHP engine and MySQL (if you desire to, otherwise you can use PHP native SQLite).

Truly I’m not the best indicated to show how to install PHP on a IIS server, but there is a very good step by step – Vista – on Bills IIS Blog: How to install PHP on IIS.

Installing the bundle, for a development machine, at this point, is the most recommended. There is a great bundle, AppServ, which is pretty easy to install and configure. It will come with all of the most usual libraries that you need and you can also choose to install some extra ones.

In other hand, if you are on a Linux machine (Ubuntu, Xubuntu – love it, Suse, etc) most likely you already have PHP, Apache and MySQL installed. Therefore you can check by using the Synaptic Package Installer, and if is not there, install it. Just make sure that you have root permissions.

Now that you have PHP installed, let’s create our first code.

Note: If you don’t have an development editor, you can use Eclipse PDT. It’s a great editor and it’s free. Very similar to the Zend Studio. If you have any other editor that you like, such as Dreamweaver, Notepad, Edit+, etc, you can use it as well.

The first thing you need to know is how make the server to understand that it will be dealing with a PHP code. For that you will be using the PHP open / close tags. There are a set of 4 open / close tags for PHP, but we will focus on only one.

PHP holds as it’s open / close tags the following:

  1. <?php ?> – Full tag
  2. <? ?> – Short tags. As one of it’s variations you will have <?= that is the same as <? echo
  3. <% – ASP tags. More as a history point, but really, not useful at all.
  4. <script language=”php”></script> – besides the first one, the only one that you can trust to work.

While coding we could be using all of the 4 sets of PHP’s open / close tags, but, for keeping a standard and full compatibility on any PHP installation, we will always use the first set. The second set have some amazing features applied to it, but on the latest versions of PHP you need to enable it on the INI configuration and, if you are dealing with embending your code on a XML file you can have some parsing errors.

As I promised before, we are not going to write a “Hello World” application and we will code 2 types of application today. A standalone and a embed one. There is no real definition as standalone or embed types, but it will be easier, for now, to identify our files as standalone or embed. The standalone is a file that is purely PHP, no other code besides PHP. The embed is a HTML, XML, or any other type of file that have PHP code inside it.

Let’s take a look on a standalone file first: standalone.php (note the .php extension, whithout it, the server can’t recongnize that there is a PHP code inside it and it would only write the code on the screen as text).

standalone.php
<?php
$string    = ‘ This is a string and the number is: ‘;
$number = 7;
echo $string;
echo $number;

If you call the file from your browser (http://localhost/standalone.php) you will see the following result:

This is a string and the number is 7

As you may noticed by now, the close tag, ?>, for the above script was omitted. When you are dealing with only PHP code on a file, you don’t need to include the closing tag, the PHP engine will do that for you and it also is a simple performance and standard recomendation from PHP.

Among other uses from the standalone file, you can call it from the command prompt / command line: php /path/to/file/standalone.php. It’s results will be displayed on the command prompt screen. At first this does not seem too useful, but when getting more advanced, you will see that you can use this with cron jobs to increase your application power.

Let’s take a look now on the embed file, embed.php. Again the extension of the file must be .php otherwise the server will not understand that there is PHP code inside the file and it will not process it.

embed.php

<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC “-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN” “http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd”&gt;
<html>
<head>
<title>
Page Title</title>
<!– other head data such as CSS styling and JS scripts –>

</head>
<body>
<p>

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.
</p>
<p>

<?php
$string    = ‘ This is a string and the number is: ‘;
$number = 7;
echo $string;
echo $number;
?>
</p>
</body>
</html>

This is a good example of a PHP script that is embed into a XHTML file. When you call the file on your browser you will have the following result:

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

This is a string and the number is 7

As you have notice, in the embed file the php close tag, ?>, is on place. Without it, the PHP engine would throw an error on the screen not letting the code to be parsed and the page to be displayed.

This is our first PHP application. For now on things will be increasing and we will focus a bit more on structures and tools that you can use while programming PHP.

For now on every time that we work with a PHP file that will be displayed on a browser or used on a cron job or for any other need, we will reference it as a application because that is what truly is.

See you on the next article, have fun.


AppServ with SSL

Appserv is by far one of the best Apache + PHP + MySql blundes that you can download for windows, but so far, you couldn’t add SSL for developing localy on your machine.

Well things have changed. With some little research and a lot of people having the same issues you could find a ton of articles teaching how to do it, some even asked you to compile the source for mod_ssl and go on from there. Not of the best scenario, but I have finally found a great article that teaches you how to add SSL for Apache 2 on Windows.

It’s not hard and if you are using the newest version of Appserv you will probably not need all files.

Check out the article: http://www.jm-solutions.com/OpenSSL/Introduction/introduction.php

P.S. Click the > to move to the next step.


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